October 27, 1864

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Chattanooga, Tenn.

                                                                                                                        Oct. 27, 1864 

Dear Father,

                Your note, on the back of Evrill’s letter was received by this morning’s mail; also a Pittsburgh paper.
                I arrived here safely and found everything as I left it. I have now six clerks under me in this office, so we do not have to work as hard as we did before I left for home, there are no Venango boys here except John Cox. He is in good health. Norris still has charge of this branch of Col. Mackay’s office. He may not stay here a great while. It is said there is to be a grand Campaign the next month. I have been told by those who ought to know that Genl. Thomas is to be left here with a force sufficient to hold this part of Tennessee during the coming Winter, while Genl. Sherman is to take the balance of the Army and start for the Gulf or Coast. The Country between this and Atlanta is to be evacuated. The line of communication was so long from Louisville to Atlanta that it was almost impossible to hold it. Genl. Sherman will find a better base of supplies on the Gulf and one not so long. I have every reason to suppose there is something of this kind afloat for extensive preparations are being made for some movement.
                I see by the “Citizen” I received today that Mr. Ramsdell has been appointed a Pay Master in the Army. I am glad of this for he is a deserving fellow. Do you know where he is assigned?
                I do not wonder that Evrill is tired of the service for he has seen much rough usage. But he has not long to serve now. John Jolly sent his picture to me a day or two since. It looks more like he used to than the one Ma has. His family were all well at the date of his writing.
                I see by the paper that a 100 bbl. well has been struck on the island above the mouth of Sandy. I think this is another argument in favor of retaining an interest in that lot on the river. Have the conditions of that sale been definitely arranged yet? Frank and Miles were both wishing you would retain an interest.
                Were any of the drafted men accepted and did they go or did Pettis’ arrangement clear the County from the draft? There are quite a number of drafted men coming to the Army now. What is Henry Smith and Jno. Lusher going to do? Henry talked of coming back here after being mustered out of service. I think of nothing more at present.
                Hoping for the health and safety of you all,
                                I am yours affectionately

                                                J. D. Chadwick

              This is the last of the extant letters of James D. Chadwick. After a short period in Chattanooga, he returned to Franklin, Pennsylvania, where he studied law in the offices of Myer and Kinnear.  No doubt he was deeply saddened by the death on September 5, 1864, of his beloved little sister Mary.  In 1866 James’s parents moved to Cleveland, but James stayed in Franklin and was admitted to the Venango County bar in 1867. That same year he married Lauretta R. Myers. Three of their young children died within three weeks of each other in 1875, but the parents lived to see other offspring bear them grandchildren. Brother Miles became a municipal judge in Minnesota.  Bingham did newspaper work in Jacksonville, Florida. Shippen entered the medical profession in Cleveland and eventually moved to Jacksonville also. Frank’s activities are now unknown; he died in December 1894. 
         James had a successful career at law with a respected clientele in his community. A Republican and Methodist, he served his community in several capacities, including as a member of the local school board and of the first Franklin board of health. He took part in G. A. R. activities and served as an aid with the rank of colonel to a national commander of the G. A. R.  During the Civil War, Chadwick  made careful drawings of the leaves of oaks in the South, in order to compare them with northern oaks. This interest in botany continued, as his hobby became the study of ferns.   He died in his home on Otter Street in Franklin on June 17, 1903. Lauretta would pass on July 1, 1912. Both are buried in the Franklin Cemetery.  Surely, as his extended service to the G. A. R. suggests, James’s Civil War experience in his twenties shaped his thoughts and life through his remaining decades.

Jonathan E. Helmreich
College Historian
Allegheny College
Meadville, Pennsylvania

August 24, 1864

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Chattanooga Tenn.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          August 24, 1864

Dear Father,

                I again address you my accustomed weekly letter. I have not received anything from you for nearly two weeks, but your letters may have been lost in transit if written. I have had a line from Miles since he went to Meadville. He will have to study hard to get the worth of his money, while boarding costs $5.00 per week.
                Nothing important has transpired since I wrote to you last week, though the enemy have been raiding through the Country not far from this place. They have torn up the railroad between here and Knoxville, but the damage can be repaired again. A gun-boat with a six-gun-battery on board went up the river towards Knoxville this evening.
                Things seem to remain in statu quo about Atlanta. There is constant skirmishing along the lines but it don’t amount to much. More men are needed in our Armies, as many will soon be discharged on account of the expiration of their term of service. Our final success evidently depends upon the reinforcement of the forces in the field. The enlisting of negroes in this part of the Country to fill quotas in the North, has proven a failure entirely. It was, as Genl. Sherman says, bad policy in Congress to pass such a law, for we would have gotten all this class at any rate. Sherman does not countenance these Sharks who deal in men, and fill their pockets by buying and selling substitutes.
                I saw Jno. Lusher,  Dave Lytle, Henry Smith and the rest of the Venango Co. boys  last evening. The Regiment to which they belong is stationed in this place and act as guards for the trains between this and “the front”. Their term of service will soon expire and they will all be home. There is considerable sickness in this City now but it will be more healthy in a month or so from now. I continue to have good health.
                How are your matters relative to your speculations in oil territory? What is the price per barrel for oil now at the wells? How are those wells on Sandy coming on? Give me a little history of all these things in your next.
                I wrote to Ma last week—I presume she got my letter. I told her to ask whether you paid the express charges on my badge and how much they were. Tell me about our candidates—who they are and how they will run. Is Pennsylvania’s vote on the amendments to her Constitution any index to the vote for president this fall? It don’t seem to me that Lincoln will get such a majority. Will Amos Myers get the district nomination.
                Melons, apples and peaches are very plenty but still dear in price. I think of nothing more—my love to all the family.
                                                Yours affectionately,

                                                                J. D. Chadwick

Next and final posting: October 27, 2014

Jonathan E. Helmreich
College Historian
Allegheny College
Meadville, PA 16335

August 17, 1864

Chattanooga Tenn.
August 17, 1864

Dear Mother,

                As I have not yet written to you since I left home, I will do so this evening. This is an excessively hot night and as I write, I sit with my clothes half off and my shirt-collar unbuttoned. The full moon is just rising about the fortifications on the adjacent hill, and her silvery beams are reflecting from the rippling surface of the broad Tennessee. This is a rather pleasant place everything considered. Inumerable “Katydids” and fall-crickets are chirping from the tall weeds that line the banks of the river, and these make me think of my child-hood’s days, for there never was a time when the peculiar chip of a fall-cricket did not make me feel lonesome, thoughtful or sad.
                The rebel Cavalry being within three or four miles, too, perhaps has a tendency to make me think how much safer I would be were I at home with my Mother. But as we have a garrison of three or four thousand men, and good fortifications, I do not expect that I will lose any sleep tonight through fear of being captured by the enemy. An attack by [Confederate Major General Joseph] Wheeler’s Command was expected however, and the whole garrison was under arms an hour before sun set. In times of danger here they make all Citizen employees take their muskets and help defend the post.
                Our fine situation on the bank of the river that I have told you about, turns out to be quite unhealthy. Dense fogs rise from the river during the nights, and the air seems to be freighted with some kind of noxious malaria. A great many are about half sick and few feel perfectly well. This hot weather takes all ambition out of a fellow, and feels like lying down and doing nothing. This is decidedly the worst season of the year on that account. I think I have become so seasoned and acclimated to such a life that I can stand it quite well. I sleep in a Wall-tent—having for a tent-mate a son of Rev. Norton—a Presiding Elder in the Erie Conference. Everything sells at Richmond prices, and I pay a colored woman 25 cents a piece for washing and “doing-up” my shirts.
                Jno. Lusher and Henry Smith are well, as are all the rest of the Venango Co. boys here. Phelps, who was married to Hattie Bain a few weeks ago, in Franklin, is here trying to raise Negro substitutes for some County in Ohio. He has succeeded in procuring one for himself, but he does not meet with much success in his enterprise. Nashville is flooded with men from the North on the same business, and but few of them are doing much. (If either of the boys can hire Wash to go for 2, 3 or $500 they had better do it).
                Tell Pa to forward that letter to me, well done up and directed, and I will risk its being lost. Ask him if he paid Frank Adams the express charges on my badge—and how much it was.
                I enclose you my photograph—was in a good humor when it was taken. Have you heard anything from David Jolly since I left home? I wish I had a few pounds of your good butter down here. Peaches and apples are very plenty—whortle-berriers and black berries were plenty but they are all done now. I want you to write to me if you can see to do it. Tell Mary I am expecting that letter from her. I think of nothing more at present.
                Hoping for your safety until I return, I am,
                                                Your affectionate son

                                                                J. D. Chadwick

That plant or shrub coming up in the garden is an Althea. I will send you a specimen of the flower in a paper.

Next posting: August 24, 2010

Jonathan Helmreich
College Historian
Allegheny College
Meadville, PA 16335

August 4, 1864

                                                                                                                   Chattanooga,                                  Tenn.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           August 4, 1864 

Dear Father,

                I write you a few lines tonight, although I have not heard from home since I have been here. I am still enjoying good health and feel first-rate. The weather is quite warm but I have a good place to stay, at least as cool as can be found here. Everything  is moving off right and to my satisfaction.
                I am the Chief Clerk in this office and have the oversight of all the business. It is rather an onerous position but I do not intend to hurt myself working. If I do not like to stay I am not bound by any contract or agreement. I am at liberty to pack up and leave whenever I want to.
                I saw Jno. Lusher, Henry Smith, David Lytle, a son of Dr. Meeker and a young  Biery of Richland this afternoon. They are all well and will be home in a month or two. Jno Cox is in the 108th Ohio which is encamped near here. He has been in the Service about six months—I saw him yesterday.
                Atlanta is not taken yet but officers who have been there within the past day or two say that it can be taken whenever Sherman wishes. It is thought he wants to capture a large portion of the rebel force. You may expect to hear of its fall within the next fortnight.
                I think of nothing that would interest you. I shall look for a letter—weekly—from home. Direct to Box 23 Chattanooga and I will be sure to get it.
                                                                I am, yours affectionately

                                                                                                J. D. Chadwick

How is “Billy” prospering? I wish I had brought my flute.

                                                                                                J. D. C.

Next posting: August 17, 2014

Jonathan E. Helmreich
College Historian
Allegheny College
Meadville, PA 16335

July 25, 1864

Having been mustered out of military service, Chadwick nevertheless continued to serve on behalf of the Union in close connection with the military.

                                                                                                                                                                                Chattanooga Tenn.

                                                                                                                                                                             July 25, 1864 

Dear Father & Mother,

                I started from Meadville the Saturday after I left home, and going via Cleveland arrived at Cincinnati on Sunday morning. I laid over there until Monday, when I took the boat for Louisville where I arrived safe on Tuesday morning. My papers not being correct I was compelled to wait two days, and had to telegraph to Atlanta in order to proceed further. I finally got everything fixed in accordance with the ideas of the “red tape” men, and arrived safely in this place on Saturday morning. As you have been down South in the hot season of the year I need not attempt to tell you how hot it is. Virginia is nothing to this country in regard to hot weather. The crops look well—I never saw as good hay and corn in my life. Much good wheat through Kentucky and Tennessee also.
                Chattanooga is about the size of Meadville and has been a pleasant place before the war. I am in Capt. Norris’ office which is situated in the most pleasant and healthy part of the city. It is on a high bluff—the bank of the Tennessee River. We get all of the breeze that is going and none of the dust. He has four clerks in all now—two of them from Cleveland Ohio. They seem to be pleasant fellows and I anticipate a good time while with them. The Government furnishes each of us with our rations. We give them to a family here with whom we board. We pay $500 per month for having our rations cooked and prepared in good style. The family consists of an old man and wife and three daughters—young ladies. They have a piano and seem to be quite musical, but they are thoroughly “Secesh” in their views although their father is a good union man. There is much business done here as this is the main depot of Supplies for [Major General William T.] Sherman’s whole command. The Tennessee River is a much larger stream here than I thought. It is as large as the Ohio seemingly and is navigable for steam boats the year around.
                There has been hard fighting for the past two of three days at Atlanta. Maj. Genl. [James B.] McPherson was killed day before yesterday—his body has just arrived at this place from the front. When we permanently occupy Atlanta this office will very likely be moved to that place. We will hardly go for two or three weeks yet however. We have not heard the result of the battle at Atlanta yet—hope we have been successful in the engagement. You will hear the particulars perhaps before this reaches you.
                It is said there have been two or three cases of Cholera in Nashville within the past few days but this place is rather healthy as yet. The prevailing disease is diarrhea. The water is tolerably good but not the best by any means. Lookout Mountain about which you have heard so much, stands looming up with its crest in the morning Clouds. You know you read about Jos. Hooker fighting above the clouds on the top of that mountain when Chattanooga was taken. Missionary Ridge stretches out in the distance to the East. The scenery here is picturesque and beautiful. Tobacco and cotton are cultivated largely throughout this portion of the Country. I never saw fields of either until I came here.
                A badge pin will come by express to Franklin for me—it may be there now. I wish you would get it for me the first time you are in town. There may be about a dollar’s expense charges on it which please pay. Ask Frank Adams, a young man who clerks in the express office, he will give it to you. Get it and take good care that it is not lost for I value it highly.
                I have not yet had time to hunt up Jno. Lusher or Henry Smith, but I expect to see them soon if they are in or near this place.
                Chattanooga is the best fortified place I ever saw excepting the City of Washington. It is naturally a very strong place. I see another draft has been ordered. Hadn’t the boys better look around for substitutes? They can be obtained now, but how much longer is uncertain. Capt. Norris’ brother Charlie was drafted in Ohio a few weeks since but he hunted up an alien substitute and is now free for the next three years, being represented in the Army by a man not liable to draft. I think of nothing more that would interest you.
               Address Box 23 Chattanooga Tenn. Care of Capt. Norris.
               Wishing for your health and prosperity, I am,
                                Your affectionate son,

                                                J. D. Chadwick

Next posting: August 4, 2014

Jonathan E. Helmreich
College Historian
Allegheny College
Meadville, PA 16335

May 25, 1864

                                                                                         Wright’s Tavern, Caroline Co. Va.

                                                                                                                               May 25, 1864 

Dear Parents,

                I will again drop you a line to let you know that I am well and alive. I will not attempt to give you any special army news—as I have told you in previous letters, you will get that in the newspapers. Our advance is not far from Hanover C. H. Meade has been chasing Lee for several days and is pouncing upon his rear-guard every now and then. We are taking many prisoners as a great number cannot keep up and straggle behind—thus being taken by our advance. A great portion of the Army trains is about six miles South of Bowling Green. We are sending wagons to Port Royal for supplies, for it is expected that Lee will make a desperate effort to keep us from making the White House a base of supplies.[1] Meade and Grant are a strong team. Hancock is winning laurels. The next fortnight will see some desperate fighting in all probability.
                Wm. Patton of Emlenton, lately promoted to be a Lieut. in Co. C. 10th was captured a week ago last Sunday with about four hundred more, but Genl. Sheridan with his Cavalry recaptured the whole party at Beaver Dam Station, as they were on their way to “Libby”.[2]  Patton went with the Cavalry in their Raid near enough to see the gaslights in the City of Richmond. He crossed the battle fields of the Peninsula and shipped at Bermuda Hundred for Washington. He gives a very interesting description of the sights he saw while on the trip.
                Affairs are so exciting here that I almost would consent to stay a week or two after my time is out to see the solution of this great problem. Will Lee enter the fortifications of Richmond and allow Grant to come his Vicksburg strategy on him or will he fight outside the defences of the City? Most likely the latter, He may fall back still further South and abandon Richmond to its fate—if so the Confederacy will have “gone up” abroad. We ought to have at least 50,000 more troops. Our total losses now amount to over 50,000! This includes the missing, many of whom are prisoners and will return again. The expiration of our term of service is drawing nigh. I wrote to you last week and requested you not to write to me any more as I might not get your letter.
                Evrill is in Finley Hospital in Washington—is getting along quite well.
                I think of nothing more but remain, as ever
                                                Your dutiful son

                                                                J. D. Chadwick

                Orders relieving the term of enlistment of Company I of the Pennsylvania 10th  were delivered just as a large Confederate force launched a major attack on the Pennsylvania men as they defended Bethesda Church. Replacement troops were not available, so Captain E. H. Henderson, Allegheny class of 1863, pocketed the order, the Union troops including Company I charged, were checked, then prevailed. More than 300 Confederates were killed and many more taken prisoner. Chadwick, thanks to his staff position, missed participation in this action. The 10th Regiment returned to Pennsylvania and was duly mustered out in Pittsburgh on …. James Chadwick returned home to visit with his family. But he did not stay long. Plans for a legal career were set aside, as he was persuaded to travel to Chattanooga to serve as a clerk in the office of Captain George  Norris, his college classmate. Though a civilian, Chadwick continued to serve the military as he had for much of the three previous years. Only a few letters from his Chattanooga  stay have survived;  as they comment on the war and the location, they are of some interest.

Next posting:  July 25, 2014

Jonathan E. Helmreich
College Historian
Allegheny College
Meadville, PA 16335


[1] White House landing was located on the south bank of the Pamunkey River in Virginia.

[2] Libby Prison was located in Richmond.

May 18, 1864

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Near Fredericksburg Va.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  May 18, 1864

Dear Father,

                Your letter written while at Philadelphia was duly received. I wrote you a hasty note a few days ago directing it to Rockland. Since that time nothing of importance has transpired here. Genl. Meade holds all he had previously gained. But little fighting has been going on for three days, but we are expecting it to begin this afternoon or tomorrow as about fifteen or twenty thousand reinforcements have been received. All of the available troops from Baltimore and Washington have been sent here and arrived last night. The heavy artillery were sent out with muskets—to act as Infantry, the hundred-day-men taking their places in the Forts about those places. I think Lee will be compelled to beat a hasty retreat soon.  He can not stand before our Army. I will not attempt to give you any of the particulars of this campaign as you will see a detailed account in the papers. I wrote you about Coop Cochran’s being dismissed—he did not go home but is now in the Sanitary Commission. The City of Fredericksburg is now one vast Hospital and nearly all of the patients are those very badly wounded. Those who were not so severely injured were sent to Washington. Our lost is estimated at 30,000 killed, wounded and missing. Tell Miles that Ben Topping and Hoover Shannon are both wounded but not mortally.
                I sw Jno . Solinger yesterday—he was on his way to join his Regiment—he said he saw you in Philadelphia. He looks fat and hearty. Jess Pryer was wounded in the fleshy part of the side or abdomen—the ball did not penetrate into the intestines so he is not seriously injured. My Company lost four killed and a number seriously wounded and missing.[1] As I wrote you before the 9th Regiment left for home on the 4th inst.—the 8th left yesterday. The 2nd goes in about ten days and the 10th about the 20th of next month. I can hardly realize that I am to be a free man so soon. I presume you need not write to me again after you receive this for again [when?] your letter would reach here I might be on my way home.
                I sent Bingham two or three papers yesterday. Tell him I shall hold him to his bargain about studying the Constitution so as to pass an examination on it. If any letters come to Rockland for me please take care of them until I come home.
                I think of nothing more at present. Expecting to see you all, and join the family circle once again,
                                I am, your dutiful son

                                                J. D. Chadwick

Next posting: May 25, 2014

Jonathan E. Helmreich
College Historian
Allegheny College
Meadville, PA 16335


[1]Though Chadwick, a good record keeper, states four of Company I were killed in the Wilderness and Spotsylvania battles, Bates in his History of Pennsylvania Volunteers lists only one as dying in these conflicts.

May 11, 1864

                                                                                          7 miles S. W. of Fredericksburg

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 May 11, 1864 

Dear Parents,

                I may have an opportunity to send a note to you tomorrow morning though mail communication is not yet established from this place. We have had the hardest campaign that this Army ever saw and it is not over yet.  This is the seventh day that this Army has fought.[1] In the language of General Grant, “such fighting, the world never before saw”. The whole affair has been hotly contested—sometimes the tide of battle seemed to waver one way and then the other. Yet thus far we have lost no great advantages over the enemy, but we seem to be more than holding our own. Grant and Meade flanked Lee and did not have to storm the earth works at Orange Courthouse. The armies are lying face to face near Spotsylvania C. H. Each has a good position and are very evenly balanced in that respect. They are manoevering  for the best position. It is said that Grant is waiting on reinforcements from Baltimore and Washington. The news from the other Armies seems to be quite cheering. Many, very many, have been killed and wounded.  The Reserves never fought better and they have lost many men. The wounded are being sent to Baltimore and Washington via Belle Plain. A number of the 10th Regiment have been killed but I guess you are not acquainted with any of them. There has been but little artillery engaged—all musketry—and the more deadly for that. The first three days fighting was in a dense woods and thick growth of under brush. The rebels have a very large army and as heretofore has been skillfully handled but General Grant is thus far equal to the emergency and said when asked by some officer how he thought the affair was progressing, that it reminded him of the story of the “Killkenny Cats” yet he thought that his cats tails was “a leetle the longest”. Our loss thus far in prisoners has exceeded that of the enemy. Burnside’s negro troops fought splendidly.—we have lost heavily in General officers.
                I think of nothing more. Write often to me.
                                I am
                                                Yours affectionately

                                                                                Jas.

Next posting: May 18, 2014

Jonathan E. Helmreich
College Historian
Allegheny College
Meadville, PA 16335


[1] Chadwick here refers to the battles of the Wilderness and Spotsylvania, May 5–12, 1864.

May 1, 1864

 

                                                                                      One mile North of Culpeper Va.        

                                                                               9 P. M. Sunday evening May 1, 1864

Dear Parents:

                We reached this place at 4 o’clock yesterday—having marched from Warrenton Junction that day. It was a hard march—very fatiguing—for the boys have not been exercising much during the winter. Many a poor fellow blistered his feet and went limping along with his gun and knapsack.  As I told you day before yesterday, our Division was relieved by Negro troops—some of Burnside’s Army. The Second and First Divisions of our Corps have been moving up from Rappahannock today. The Army is concentrating—a blow is soon to be struck which will be felt by the bogus Confederacy. From a reliable source I have obtained the strength of our Army here, which is about as follows: 2nd Corps 39,000; 5th Corps 31,800; 6th Corps 30,000; Cavalry Corps 18,200 making an aggregated of 119,000 men. Burnside has 42,000 with him which will make a total of 161,000 men—which is a large Army. This force is ready to strike at Lee at any moment, while Sigel in the Shenandoah Valley and West Va. is said to be moving south with 27,000 men. I heard it asserted today by those who seemed to know that [Major General Benjamin F.] Butler has over 100,000 in his Dept. If this be so we will certainly do something for Eastern Virginia this Spring. It is thought that we will cross the Rapidan about next Tuesday or Wednesday.  General Crawford came back today. I guess there is no doubt but that our Division will see Pennsylvania before July. A telegram was received last night from the War Dept, that we would be released in three years from the date of muster into the State Service, which with my company was on the 14th of June. A rumor says that we are to be taken to the State on the 15th of this month for the purpose of recruiting and reorganizing but I think this is only a rumor. I received short note from Frank about an hour since—all were well at home. I saw Henry Herpst this evening—he is 1st Lieut. of Co. A 121st Regt. Pa. Vols. I saw many Venango boys—they are all well. I wish you were here to see this country—it has been a perfect garden at one time. The grass is now quite green and the leaves are getting larger than a Squirrel’s ear”. A sunset at this place is a magnificent sight to one who appreciates the beauties of nature. The mountains are visible for fifty miles, and you can scarcely determine their dim outlines from dark storm-clouds in the western horizon.
                I expected to hear from you today but nothing came for me. I hope you will write often where your mail facilities are so good. I get your letters the day after they are mailed. I think of nothing more tonight so will close for this time.
                                I am, as ever
                                                Yours affectionately

                                                                J. D. Chadwick 

Next posting: May 11, 2064

Jonathan E. Helmreich
College Historian
Allegheny College
Meadville, PA 16335

April 29, 1864

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Warrenton Junction Va.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      April 29, 9 o’clock P. M.

Dear Parents,

                As you see we have commenced to move, having left Bristoe at 11 A. M. A portion of Burnsides troops relieved us—his darkies are guarding at Manassas. Troops are being shipped from some place or another on the railroad—a number of Regiments passed us on the cars. We are to go in the morning at 5 o’clock. I expect we will camp in the neighborhood of Brandy or Culpeper tomorrow night. The Army at the front has not commenced to move but I presume it will when we all concentrate at Culpeper. No news of importance besides this that I know of.
                I wrote you two letters a day or two since which I presume you have not received when you wrote as you did not acknowledge them. I am writing on a box which accounts for my bad chirography. I will close as I am tired and sleepy. Good night,
                                Your son

                                                J. D. Chadwick

Next posting:  May 1, 2014

Jonathan E. Helmreich
College Historian
Allegheny College
Meadville, PA 16335