Coin Capital Team Wins Zingale Big Idea Competition at Allegheny College

Allegheny College students James Burnette, Austin Bristol and Joe Nagel won first prize and $5,000 in Allegheny’s Annual Zingale Big Idea Competition, a contest sponsored by the college’s Center for Business and Economics and modeled after ABC’s popular “Shark Tank” show.

Big Idea Competition 2018 Winner
From left: Chris Allison, Austin Bristol, James Burnette and Lance Zingale

Burnette, Bristol and Nagel’s team — Coin Capital — pitched an idea for a hedge fund that specializes in high frequency trading between the U.S. dollar and cryptocurrencies. They have worked together since December on developing a proprietary algorithm to trade and generate a profit in these markets.

In all, 25 teams of students — 20 from Allegheny and five from Grove City College — entered the competition, held April 27–28. The winning teams included students with academic majors that run the gamut from art to computer science to economics to environmental science.

“The success of a liberal arts education was on full display at this year’s Zingale Big Idea Competition,” said Chris Allison, Allegheny entrepreneur in residence and co-coordinator of the competition. “Students presented innovative ideas that reflected the breadth and depth of what they are learning and the analytical skills they are developing. We are very excited to see what they do next.”

Other award winners were:

Second Prize ($2,500)
MunchYum — Frank Chen and Chris Miller (Allegheny College)

Third Prize ($1,500)
KnowIT — Jeremy Moore, Eduardo Anaya and Kadeem Lafargue (Allegheny College)

The Next Big Idea ($1,000) – the proposal showing the most potential for further development
Aid Memoir — Natalia Buczek (Allegheny College)

Honorable Mentions
SEO Vineyard  —  Connor Grieb (Grove City College)
Chute — Steve Weaver, Levi Roberts and Boyce Cubarney (Grove City College)

The competition was renamed last year in honor of 1977 Allegheny graduate Lance Zingale and his wife, Karen. In November, the Zingales made a gift to establish a $500,000 endowed fund supporting the Center for Business and Economics. Lance Zingale has served as a judge at the competition for the last four years and is a member of the center’s Board of Visitors.

Source: Academics, Publications & Research

In Case You Missed It…the 17th Annual Executive Roundtable

This year’s Roundtable, “The Opioid Crisis, Business, and the Economy” was a purposeful discussion of the crisis that has touched every area of the United States. Our 2018 Distinguished Panel included Dionissi Aliprantis, Ph.D., Senior Research Economist, Federal Reserve of Cleveland, Denise Johnson MD, Chief Medical Officer, Meadville Medical Center, The Honorable Mike Kelly, U.S. Representative, Pennsylvania 3rd District and Elisabeth Smith, President and CEO, Acutec Precision Aerospace. Visit our web page to view the video of this timely event.

Allegheny College to Host Annual Zingale Big Idea Competition

The Center for Business and Economics at Allegheny College will hold its 11th Annual Zingale Big Idea Competition April 27–28 in Quigley Hall on the Allegheny campus. The contest emulates the experiences seen on the popular CNBC broadcast “Shark Tank.” The public is invited to attend the final round of presentations on Saturday, April 28, from 9 a.m. to 3 p.m.

Students will present entrepreneurial concepts with the chance to receive funding through cash prizes. The ideas must fit into one of four areas: For-profit Business, Not-for-profit Social Venture, Research Project, or Community Engagement Initiative. Students work in teams and design 20-minute presentations for their ideas, which they present at the competition.

The first-place team will receive a $5,000 cash prize. In total, $10,000 in prizes and trophies will be awarded, with the first-, second- and third-place teams receiving trophies, monetary prizes and honorable mentions.

Some students have re-purposed their Junior Seminar or Senior Comp projects, or have taken the Economics of Entrepreneurship II class, to prepare for this competition. This year, there are 25 teams of one to three students each. Five of the teams are from Grove City College; the remaining 20 consist of Allegheny students.

The competition was renamed last year in honor of 1977 Allegheny graduate Lance Zingale and his wife, Karen. In November, the Zingales made a gift to establish a $500,000 endowed fund supporting the Center for Business and Economics. Lance Zingale has served as a judge at the competition for the last four years and is a member of the center’s Board of Visitors.

This year’s competition will be judged by a panel of two Allegheny faculty and 12 accomplished professionals, 11 of whom are Allegheny alumni. Among those are Zingale and 2017 Allegheny graduate Liana Leja, the first-place award winner in last year’s competition. Her “Care Van” proposal improved access to medical care in the Meadville community while reducing costs and improving operational efficiencies.

Entrepreneur in Residence Chris Allison and Sarah Holt are co-coordinators of the Big Idea competition. Allison says that the competition challenges students to step outside their comfort zones and develop creative solutions that address a need.

“Students participating in the competition are expected to do their homework,” Allison says. “They thoroughly research the marketplace, find a niche where they can make a difference, polish their presentation and make the pitch to executives. It’s a demanding but rewarding experience for them, and we are excited to hear this year’s big ideas.”

Source: Academics, Publications & Research

Senior Samantha Bretz Sets Her Sights on Becoming Miss Pennsylvania

Allegheny College senior Samantha Bretz will compete for the title of Miss Pennsylvania in June, now that she already carries the banner of Miss Crawford County.

Allegheny senior Samantha Bretz from Adrian, Michigan, won the title of Miss Crawford County. Photo Credit: Julie Haemer-Scott/Cambridge Springs

Bretz was crowned Miss Crawford County 2018 in February, competing against eight other contestants in Conneaut Lake. She won the interview, talent and evening gown awards as well as the first-place scholarship. Bretz performed a ballet routine to the Cupid Variation “Act III: Amour” from Don Quixote, a routine known for requiring impeccable balance and lightness.

“In the interview room, the judges asked me ‘Why are you here today?,’ Bretz recalls from her February pageant competition. “I replied ‘Crawford County is the reason.’ Out of all the places in the world I’ve traveled to, this is the place where I discovered a passion for experiential education. Now I’ve made it my mission to bring creativity, collaboration, and reflection to classrooms across my communities. I work toward a future where students can develop a sense of purpose in their education and can learn by play rather than by rote.

“For me, it’s all about personal development,” says Bretz, who is from Adrian, Michigan. “Each category of the competition challenges you to express your best self, and that comes from the preparation and practice. Titleholders should be able to eloquently communicate their thoughts and ideas, exude passion for their platforms, exhibit poise and confidence, think on their feet in stressful situations, and work toward presenting their talent beautifully.

“Once crowned, a titleholder has a “year of service” promoting her personal platform by advocating and leading in her community. I started competing as a creative means to fund my education. The Miss America Organization is the leading scholarship provider for women in the U.S., and I have been fortunate to receive multiple scholarships toward my Allegheny education.”

On campus, Bretz is an economics major and minoring in both French and dance and movement studies. She has been involved for her four years with the Orchesis Dance Company, serving as both choreographer and president, and has been a member of Delta Delta Delta, the Jazz and Dance Ensemble (JaDE), the Allegheny College choirs, Lambda Sigma sophomore honor society, the Finance and Facilities Committee, and Omicron Delta Epsilon. She volunteers with Civic Engagement, is employed as a Center for Business and Economics fellow, and interns for the Gifted/Talented middle school enrichment program.

Last year, Bretz competed in a pageant in Michigan and won the title of Miss River Raisin Festival. For Bretz, pageants have helped her to become the best version of herself — able to speak confidently, keep well-informed, and further her passion for progressive education methods.

“I would not be the successful individual I am today without the Miss America Organization,” says Bretz. “For my very first pageant interview, I was shaking in my heels as the judges asked controversial questions about current topics. By staying informed and engaging in civil discourse with my peers, I became so much more self-assured in expressing myself, and now I can confidently give an opinion on any topic in front of any audience.”

Bretz has accepted a position with Boston Scientific as a finance leadership development program associate immediately following her graduation in May. Her experience at Allegheny, as well as the rigorous practice of interviewing through the Miss America Organization, has helped her to become an ideal candidate for the position, she says.

“Even after I stop competing, I will always have this passion for education and will continue to seek ways to change the world,” she says. “It’s not just a crown in a beauty contest, but a platform to create meaningful change, and that’s what I love about Miss America. … Who knows what new and exciting opportunities await? Next stop, Miss Pennsylvania!”

Source: Academics, Publications & Research

Allegheny to Host Panel of Experts Discussing the Economic Impact of the Opioid Crisis

The opioid crisis has hit Pennsylvania hard.

Fatal overdoses rose 37 percent across the state between 2015 and 2016 and are now the leading cause of death among Americans under 50, health statistics from Pennsylvania and other states show. Death rates have been particularly high in counties in Western Pennsylvania. Beaver, Allegheny, Washington, Butler, Crawford and Erie counties had death rates in 2016 that placed them in the top one-third of counties in the state.

The increased use of heroin and other opioids raises questions about how this crisis is affecting business and the economy.

Allegheny College’s 17th Executive Roundtable at 4 p.m. Monday, April 9, in Ford Memorial Chapel, will examine “The Opioid Crisis, Business and the Economy” and will bring together executives and government and health professionals to discuss the implications of the crisis on American society. The event is hosted by the college’s Center for Business and Economics and Law & Policy Program. It is free and open to the public.

The panel of experts will include: Dionissi Aliprantis, senior research economist at the Federal Reserve of Cleveland; Denise Johnson, chief medical officer at the Meadville Medical Center; Republican Congressman Mike Kelly of Pennsylvania’s 3rd District, and Elisabeth Smith, president and chief executive officer of Acutec Precision Aerospace. Zachary Callen, Allegheny professor of political science, will serve as panel moderator.

The roundtable’s expert panelists from the world of economics, medicine and politics will discuss the implications of the opioid crisis and the economic challenges that confront all facets of society from families to businesses to health-care teams.

“In November 2017 the Council of Economic Advisors published a study that estimated the cost of the opioid crisis in 2015 alone was $500 billion nationwide,” said Tomas Nonnenmacher, professor of economics and co-director of Allegheny’s Center for Business and Economics. “This is a staggering loss, mostly due to over 33,000 opioid-involved deaths of mostly working-age individuals. In the roundtable discussion, we will hear from an economist, a health professional, an employer and a member of Congress who are studying how the opioid crisis affects individuals, business and the economy and how policies and partnerships might help individuals, businesses and health-care professionals to best respond.”

The Executive Roundtable is supported by the Earl W. Adams Jr. Endowment, established by Allegheny College Trustee William H. Brown Jr., Allegheny class of 1980, in honor of Professor Earl William Adams Jr. — teacher, mentor and friend. For more information on the roundtable, contact cbe@allegheny.edu.

Source: Academics, Publications & Research

Allegheny College Introduces New Major in Business

Allegheny College will introduce a new major in business that integrates classroom learning with experiential opportunities available through the college’s Center for Business and Economics. The program will be offered beginning with the 2018–19 academic year by the Department of Economics, which has provided a business/managerial track within its economics major for 18 years.

“Our increasingly complex and connected world demands business leaders who excel as professionals and understand their responsibility to solve problems affecting society at large,” Allegheny President James H. Mullen, Jr., said. “Our new major in business builds on our existing strength in business education and is designed to provide students with the foundation to advance in their careers, instill in them the ability to adapt in a constantly evolving marketplace, and inspire their commitment to contribute as local and global citizens.”

The business major incorporates core coursework in economics, accounting, management, statistics, ethics and communications. Students also can take courses in important areas such as entrepreneurship, finance, human resource management, marketing, international business and organizational behavior.

Through the college’s Center for Business and Economics, business majors at Allegheny can capitalize on internships, research, study abroad programs and other experiential-learning activities. For example, the center coordinates trips to New York City and other major cities for students to visit leading corporations, invites seasoned executives to campus to interact with students, and sponsors the annual Zingale Big Idea Competition, which awards $10,000 in prizes to students seeking funding for their business concepts.

“Along with equipping students with fundamental quantitative skills and advanced knowledge, we are focused on educating the next generation of business leaders to think critically, communicate clearly, consider problems from multiple perspectives and step forward to develop innovative solutions,” Stephen Onyeiwu, professor and chair in the Department of Economics, said. “The business major also will challenge students to put their classroom learning into practice through our Center for Business and Economics, which brings together a wide range of meaningful opportunities for students to interact with industry leaders, gain career experience and think more expansively about their future.”

Like all academic majors at Allegheny, the business major will require students to complete a Senior Comprehensive Project, an original piece of scholarly or creative work similar to a master’s thesis. All Allegheny students also declare a minor or a second major from an academic division outside of their major. This curriculum is designed to help students develop big-picture thinking and problem-solving skills.

“We want to do more than simply prepare students majoring in business to succeed in their first job,” Onyeiwu said. “That initial step in their career is certainly important, but beyond that we want to empower our graduates to pivot as businesses change and the needs of society grow.”

Learn more about Allegheny’s new major in business here.

Source: Academics, Publications & Research

Allegheny College Introduces New Major in Business

Business Major

Allegheny College will introduce a new major in business that integrates classroom learning with experiential opportunities available through the college’s Center for Business and Economics. The program will be offered beginning with the 2018–19 academic year by the Department of Economics, which has provided a business/managerial track within its economics major for 18 years.

“Our increasingly complex and connected world demands business leaders who excel as professionals and understand their responsibility to solve problems affecting society at large,” Allegheny President James H. Mullen, Jr., said. “Our new major in business builds on our existing strength in business education and is designed to provide students with the foundation to advance in their careers, instill in them the ability to adapt in a constantly evolving marketplace, and inspire their commitment to contribute as local and global citizens.”

The business major incorporates core coursework in economics, accounting, management, statistics, ethics and communications. Students also can take courses in important areas such as entrepreneurship, finance, human resource management, marketing, international business and organizational behavior.

Through the college’s Center for Business and Economics, business majors at Allegheny can capitalize on internships, research, study abroad programs and other experiential-learning activities. For example, the center coordinates trips to New York City and other major cities for students to visit leading corporations, invites seasoned executives to campus to interact with students, and sponsors the annual Zingale Big Idea Competition, which awards $10,000 in prizes to students seeking funding for their business concepts.

“Along with equipping students with fundamental quantitative skills and advanced knowledge, we are focused on educating the next generation of business leaders to think critically, communicate clearly, consider problems from multiple perspectives and step forward to develop innovative solutions,” Stephen Onyeiwu, professor and chair in the Department of Economics, said. “The business major also will challenge students to put their classroom learning into practice through our Center for Business and Economics, which brings together a wide range of meaningful opportunities for students to interact with industry leaders, gain career experience and think more expansively about their future.”

Like all academic majors at Allegheny, the business major will require students to complete a Senior Comprehensive Project, an original piece of scholarly or creative work similar to a master’s thesis. All Allegheny students also declare a minor or a second major from an academic division outside of their major. This curriculum is designed to help students develop big-picture thinking and problem-solving skills.

“We want to do more than simply prepare students majoring in business to succeed in their first job,” Onyeiwu said. “That initial step in their career is certainly important, but beyond that we want to empower our graduates to pivot as businesses change and the needs of society grow.”

Learn more about Allegheny’s new major in business here.

Source: Academics, Publications & Research

Grassroots Campaign Propels Allegheny College Student to Borough Council Seat

Morgan Boyd’s campaign for New Wilmington Borough Council was “as grassroots as it gets,” he said.

“It was me and a picket sign,” the 19-year-old Allegheny College student said. And a lot of walking, talking and listening.

Running as an independent, Boyd collected the most votes — 241 — in the five-person race for four open council seats on Nov. 7. The lifelong New Wilmington resident will take office in January in the 2,200-person borough, located about 60 miles north of Pittsburgh in Lawrence County.

Boyd saw opportunities for economic growth in his hometown. So, he decided to enter the race and wasted no time in getting started. He gathered signatures from registered voters to get on the ballot, planted yard signs and pounded the pavement for face time with citizens at their homes.

“I wasn’t visibly shaking but mentally it was rough,” Boyd said of his first few door-to-door visits. But he quickly became comfortable speaking with voters about his platform and answering their questions.

“When you start going out and talking to all of those different people, you start to see this incredible diversity of ideas, of interest, of ideologies,” he said.

On the Monday before Election Day, Boyd canvassed the borough from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. And once voting began, he spent all day — from 7 a.m. when polls opened to 8 p.m. when they closed — standing outside the borough’s sole polling place to greet voters.

The most profound moment of that experience, Boyd said, came near 7:30 p.m. as the stream of voters began to wane. A senior citizen arrived at the precinct after a half-mile trek from his home using a motorized wheelchair.

“I walk over, shake his hand and say ‘Hi, I’m Morgan Boyd, and I’d appreciate your vote for council today,’” Boyd recalled. “… And he looked at me and said, ‘I know exactly who you are. You’re the reason I came here to vote tonight.’”

This is Boyd’s first elected office. He’s eager to learn but already has shown his ambition and potential for leadership. In summer 2016, Boyd attended both the Democratic National Convention in Philadelphia and the Republican National Convention in Cleveland. “I was on the floor of those conventions when both Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton were nominated for president of the United States,” he said.

In high school, Boyd served as statewide treasurer for Pennsylvania Future Business Leaders of America, helping to manage an organization of 12,000 student members, a $2 million budget and a philanthropic effort that raised $58,000.

An economics major and philosophy minor at Allegheny, Boyd participates in the college’s law and policy program and studied philosophy at Harvard University last summer. He’s on track to finish three years of college coursework in two years.

Once his undergraduate studies are complete, Boyd plans to enter a graduate program in public policy at Carnegie Mellon University through a cooperative agreement between that institution and Allegheny. In just four years, he’s looking at earning both bachelor’s and master’s degrees.

For now, though, Boyd is focused on the challenge of being a college student and an elected official. As a council member with a four-year term, he will head a committee, attend meetings, ensure constituents receive appropriate services and explore ways to stimulate economic development.

“So, in a small town, how can you leverage what assets you have to create the best possible standard of living for everybody?” he said. “New Wilmington has these incredible resources we can tap into … It’s all about finding how to leverage those assets to build not just business but sustainable business that is of benefit to the town.”

The New Wilmington Borough Council seat comes with responsibility — but not a paycheck. Like most of his fellow council members, Boyd will balance volunteer public service with the demands of full-time work.

“I look at college as a job,” he said. “It’s classes nine to five — then you go back, you do your work, and you show up for your classes the next day.”

Boyd is quick to deflect the spotlight when asked about winning an election at a young age, noting that voters also chose three other council members in that race. But he does hope one group in particular draws inspiration from his campaign.

“It’s totally possible for a college student to run for public office,” he said. “The problems of today will be solved by the students of today.”

Source: Academics, Publications & Research

Grassroots Campaign Propels Allegheny College Student to Borough Council Seat

Morgan Boyd’s campaign for New Wilmington Borough Council was “as grassroots as it gets,” he said.

“It was me and a picket sign,” the 19-year-old Allegheny College student said. And a lot of walking, talking and listening.

Running as an independent, Boyd collected the most votes — 241 — in the five-person race for four open council seats on Nov. 7. The lifelong New Wilmington resident will take office in January in the 2,200-person borough, located about 60 miles north of Pittsburgh in Lawrence County.

Boyd saw opportunities for economic growth in his hometown. So, he decided to enter the race and wasted no time in getting started. He gathered signatures from registered voters to get on the ballot, planted yard signs and pounded the pavement for face time with citizens at their homes.

“I wasn’t visibly shaking but mentally it was rough,” Boyd said of his first few door-to-door visits. But he quickly became comfortable speaking with voters about his platform and answering their questions.

“When you start going out and talking to all of those different people, you start to see this incredible diversity of ideas, of interest, of ideologies,” he said.

On the Monday before Election Day, Boyd canvassed the borough from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. And once voting began, he spent all day — from 7 a.m. when polls opened to 8 p.m. when they closed — standing outside the borough’s sole polling place to greet voters.

The most profound moment of that experience, Boyd said, came near 7:30 p.m. as the stream of voters began to wane. A senior citizen arrived at the precinct after a half-mile trek from his home using a motorized wheelchair.

“I walk over, shake his hand and say ‘Hi, I’m Morgan Boyd, and I’d appreciate your vote for council today,’” Boyd recalled. “… And he looked at me and said, ‘I know exactly who you are. You’re the reason I came here to vote tonight.’”

This is Boyd’s first elected office. He’s eager to learn but already has shown his ambition and potential for leadership. In summer 2016, Boyd attended both the Democratic National Convention in Philadelphia and the Republican National Convention in Cleveland. “I was on the floor of those conventions when both Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton were nominated for president of the United States,” he said.

In high school, Boyd served as statewide treasurer for Pennsylvania Future Business Leaders of America, helping to manage an organization of 12,000 student members, a $2 million budget and a philanthropic effort that raised $58,000.

An economics major and philosophy minor at Allegheny, Boyd participates in the college’s law and policy program and studied philosophy at Harvard University last summer. He’s on track to finish three years of college coursework in two years.

Once his undergraduate studies are complete, Boyd plans to enter a graduate program in public policy at Carnegie Mellon University through a cooperative agreement between that institution and Allegheny. In just four years, he’s looking at earning both bachelor’s and master’s degrees.

For now, though, Boyd is focused on the challenge of being a college student and an elected official. As a council member with a four-year term, he will head a committee, attend meetings, ensure constituents receive appropriate services and explore ways to stimulate economic development.

“So, in a small town, how can you leverage what assets you have to create the best possible standard of living for everybody?” he said. “New Wilmington has these incredible resources we can tap into … It’s all about finding how to leverage those assets to build not just business but sustainable business that is of benefit to the town.”

The New Wilmington Borough Council seat comes with responsibility — but not a paycheck. Like most of his fellow council members, Boyd will balance volunteer public service with the demands of full-time work.

“I look at college as a job,” he said. “It’s classes nine to five — then you go back, you do your work, and you show up for your classes the next day.”

Boyd is quick to deflect the spotlight when asked about winning an election at a young age, noting that voters also chose three other council members in that race. But he does hope one group in particular draws inspiration from his campaign.

“It’s totally possible for a college student to run for public office,” he said. “The problems of today will be solved by the students of today.”

Source: Academics, Publications & Research

Allegheny College Receives $590,000 Gift to Support Center for Business and Economics, Student Scholarships

Allegheny College alumnus Lance Zingale and his wife, Karen, have made a $590,000 gift to support Allegheny’s Center for Business and Economics (CBE) and student scholarships at the college.

The Zingales’ commitment will establish a $500,000 endowment to fund initiatives at the CBE, which provides business-related internship, research and other experiential-learning opportunities for students.

Lance Zingale, a 1977 Allegheny graduate who majored in economics, is executive vice president and general manager, major markets, at Sykes Enterprises Inc., in Tampa/St. Petersburg, Florida. He has served as a judge and funded prizes for the CBE’s Big Idea Competition for the last four years. Students participating in the annual contest prepare and present proposals to fund concepts for businesses, nonprofit social ventures, research and community engagement initiatives.

“Lance Zingale personifies alumni who give of their time, talent and treasure to their alma mater,” said Chris Allison ’83, Allegheny trustee, CBE co-director and entrepreneur in residence. “As important as this significant gift is, Lance’s years of commitment to our students as a judge for the Big Idea Competition and mentor is perhaps even more significant. He is truly changing lives, and the Allegheny community is deeply grateful for his involvement and support.”

In recognition of the Zingales’ generosity, the Center for Business and Economics has renamed its Big Idea Competition in their honor.

In recognition of the Zingales’ generosity, the CBE has renamed the Big Idea Competition in their honor. Beginning next year, the contest will be known as the Zingale Big Idea Competition. This coming spring, Lance Zingale also will join the CBE Board of Visitors, which advises faculty and staff in the Department of Economics on industry trends and other opportunities.

“Allegheny, next to my family, has had the greatest influence in my values and in how I think and how I approach life,” Zingale said. “I give Allegheny a lot of credit, 40 years later, for that … and I want to do a lot for the school.”

Zingale said he considers himself to be an “early-stage investor” in the CBE, which was established in 2015. The return on this investment, he added, is seeing Allegheny and its students gain more prominence for creativity and innovation in business.

Continuing to develop a strong business education program is critical for Allegheny and for preparing students to succeed in business careers, Zingale said. And he hopes the gift will spur other Allegheny graduates, particularly fellow economics majors from his era, to join him in investing their time and financial resources in the CBE.

“I wanted to give back and encourage and challenge other alumni to be engaged with the Center for Business and Economics,” he said. “At this launch stage of the Center, I don’t know of another place where you can have such a big impact so quickly and see the results of your support.”

In addition to their gift to the CBE, the Zingales will provide Annual Fund Grant Scholarships for two Allegheny students in each of the next five years.

The Zingales’ commitment supports the College’s “Our Allegheny: Our Third Century Quest” comprehensive fundraising campaign. As of Oct. 31, the campaign has raised $149.3 million toward its $200 million goal. Learn more at allegheny.edu/campaign.

Source: Academics, Publications & Research